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The removal of contaminants from wastewater, or sewage, before it reaches aquifers or natural bodies of water such as rivers, lakes, estuaries, and seas is known as wastewater treatment. Because pure water does not exist outside of chemical laboratories, any differentiation between clean and contaminated water is based on the type and concentration of pollutants contained in the water, as well as its intended purpose. Water is said to be polluted in broad terms when it contains enough contaminants to make it inappropriate for a specific use, such as drinking, swimming, or fishing. Although natural factors influence water quality, the term pollution usually refers to contamination caused by human activity. As a result, water pollution is mostly caused by the discharge of contaminated wastewater into surface or groundwater, and wastewater treatment is a key component of water pollution prevention. Domestic sewage, industrial sewage, and storm sewage are the three types of wastewater or sewage. Domestic sewage, also known as sanitary sewage, transports used water from homes and flats. Water from manufacturing or chemical operations is used in industrial sewage. Storm sewage, often known as storm water, is rainwater collected in a system of pipelines or open channels. There has been numerous sewage treatment technologies created, the majority of which use biological treatment processes. When selecting an appropriate technology, engineers and decision makers must consider technical and economic criteria, as well as quantitative and qualitative characteristics of each option.
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