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The study of the processes that shape the Earth's surface, the animals and plants that live there, and the spatial patterns they exhibit is known as physical geography. Physical geography focuses on the Earth's land-surface and envelope, emphasizing the geographical differences that occur as well as the temporal changes that are required to comprehend the Earth's current environments. Its goal is to figure out how the physical environment of the Earth affects and is changed by human activity. Physical geography is split into geomorphology, climatology, hydrology, and biogeography. It develops research that impact environmental management and design, drawing on skills in mathematical and statistical modeling as well as remote sensing. Physical geographers study the earth's landscapes, surface processes, and climate—all of the activity that occurs in atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. There are many different factors that make up physical geography. Seasons, the composition of the atmosphere, atmospheric pressure and wind, storms and climatic disturbances, climate zones, microclimates, the hydrologic cycle, soils, rivers and streams, flora and fauna, weathering, erosion, natural hazards, deserts, glaciers and ice sheets, coastal terrain, ecosystems, geologic systems, and much more are among the topics covered.
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