Limnology is the study of fresh or saline water, which includes lakes, ponds, reservoirs, streams, rivers, and seas, among other aquatic environments. It is an interdisciplinary discipline that studies inland waterways as complex ecological systems by combining biology, chemistry, physics, and geology. Aquatic ecology and hydrobiology, which study aquatic animals and their interactions with the abiotic (non-living) environment, are closely related to limnology. Limnology is the science of integrating the physical, chemical, and biological components of inland aquatic ecosystems with the drainage basin, water movements through the drainage basin, biogeochemical changes that occur en route, and exchanges with the atmosphere. The lake ecology is inextricably linked to its drainage region and atmosphere, as well as the flowing (lotic) waters and ground waters that carry and metabolise land components to the lake. The limnological field combines the functional links of growth, adaption, nutrient cycles, and biological production with species composition, as well as the physical, chemical, and biological conditions that regulate these relationships.


  •     Formation of lakes
  •     Aquatic ecology
  •     Hydrobiology
  •     Lentic and Lotic ecosystems
  •     Oceanography
  •     Aquatic science
  •     Earth’s Water Resources
  •     Climate and ice dynamics
  •     Winter and cross- seasonal biogeochemistry
  •     Biotic and Abiotic environment
  •     Trophic interactions under ice