Land, like air and water, is a critical resource for humanity. Multiple factors contribute to land degradation, including harsh meteorological conditions, human activities that contaminate or damage the quality of soils and land utility. Most significant is climate change, it is a major contributor to land degradation. Climate change is expected to be a leading cause of biodiversity loss, accounting for around 10% of all human-induced greenhouse gas emissions. The well-being of at least 3.2 billion people is being harmed by land degradation caused by human activities. Land degradation and climate change will cut crop yields by an average of 10% globally by 2050, and by up to 50% in some places. Land degradation, particularly in developing nations, increases the number of people exposed to dangerous air, water, and land pollutants. Desertification is a type of land degradation in which productive land is transformed into a desert. Deforestation, land abandonment, declining wild species populations, loss of soil health, reduction of fresh water are all examples of land degradation. The loss of biodiversity and ecosystem cost the equivalent of nearly 10% of the world's annual gross GDP in 2010. The expansion and unsustainable management of agriculture is the primary global driver of land degradation, t his results in severe biodiversity loss. Scientists recently warned that unsustainable agriculture methods are causing the loss of 24 billion tonnes of valuable soil each year. By 2050, 95 percent of the Earth's land areas might be degraded if current trends continue.
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